Geography of CANADA
As the world’s second largest country, Canada’s geographical changes significantly depending on which part you are in. And with the differences in each region, there is a very different accompanying landscape and climate.
In almost every part of Canada, there are lakes and rivers. Canada has over 2 million lakes covering 7% of the land mass. The largest lake is the Northwest Territories’ Great Bear Lake. It is estimated that Canada is home to one-seventh of the world’s fresh water.
Canada has a land mass of 9,970,610 square kilometers and occupies the northern half of North America. From east to west, Canada encompasses six time zones. Canada has coastlines on the Atlantic and Pacific and the Arctic Ocean, giving it the longest coastline of any country. Canada’s southern boundary is an 8,892- kilometer border with the United States. Northern Canada’s Arctic islands come within 800 kilometers of the North Pole.
In northernmost Canada, only 12 percent of the land is suitable for agriculture because of the harsh climate. As a result, most of the population of Canada lives within a few hundred kilometers of the southern border, where the climate is milder.
Climate in CANADA
Canada’s climate varies wildly based on geography, from Parma-frost in the north to four distinct seasons towards the equator. In this region, the temperature can climb up to 35 degrees Celsius in the summer and descend to a chilly -25 degrees Celsius during winter.
Canada’s climate and environment are one of the main reasons that Canada is such a successful country. The blend of natural resources and climate sustains us. The seasons dictate the look of the land: according to whether the natural environment is in a state of dormancy or growth.
Canada’s climate is characterized by its diversity, as temperature and precipitation differ depending on where you are and what time of year it is. Other than the North where it’s above freezing for only a few months a year, most Canadian cities are within 300 km of the southern border, where mild springs, hot summer, and pleasantly crisp autumns are common during the majority of the year.
The official currency of Canada is Canadian Dollar. The symbol is $. You can check for the exchange rate of Canadian $ with other currencies on www.xe.com.
English and French are the country’s two official languages, though the province of New Brunswick is the only officially bilingual area in the country. You will, however, notice both languages on maps, tourist brochures, and product labels. The French spoken in Canada is not, for the most part, the language of France. In Quebec, where the majority of the population are of French descent, the local language is known as Quebecois. Most Quebeckers will understand formal French; it will just strike them as being a little peculiar.
||St. John’s, NFLD
For canoeing, kayaking and white-water rafting hiking. For beach activities, surf’s up on the east coast at Ingonish Beach in Nova Scotia and in the warmer waters of Melmerby and Caribou beaches near New Glasgow. Skiers are spoilt for choice, with good cross-country skiing found all across the land. The main alpine ski centers are in Ontario, Quebec, Alberta. and British Columbia.
Canada is not only known for its picturesque locations, but also for its high standard of education. The colleges in Canada are at par with the best Known colleges in the world, in terms of the educational programs offered and the facilities provided to the students
Student Medical Insurance is ideal for students who are no longer covered as a dependent under their parents insurance, or who are attending school outside an HMO or PPO region, or find individual medical insurance or other current coverage too expensive.
Employment in regulated professions and trades
In Canada, about 20 percent of jobs are regulated by the government to protect public health and safety. For example, nurses, doctors, engineers, teachers, and electricians all work in regulated professions. People who want to work in regulated jobs need to get a license from the regulatory body in the province in which they live. If you want to know more about how to enter a particular profession or trade in a particular province, you should contact the provincial regulatory body for that job. The professions are self-regulating and they administer the provincial laws that apply to their profession. Rules for entering professions also differ from province to province.
It is important to learn English or French as quickly as possible. Many newcomers begin life in Canada by looking for a job that will allow them to learn or improve their English or French. The Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) program gives eligible adult immigrants the chance to take basic English or French classes at no charge.
People with foreign credentials need a Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) score to enter Canadian colleges and universities. Colleges and universities offering courses in French use various French language tests.
Job opportunities (Must possess legal documentation from CIC to work in CANADA)
Human Resources Development Canada Centres:
Counselors at these centres can give you free advice and information about job and language training and work creation programs for newcomers. They can help you plan an effective job search and prepare a résumé of your education and experience. Each centre also has listings of available jobs on the computer or on bulletin boards.
Every daily newspaper in Canada has a classified advertisements section where you will find a variety of jobs listed. In many areas, there are also weekly or monthly employment papers that advertise jobs.
To help newcomers prepare to enter the Canadian workforce or to gain access to their profession or trade in Canada, immigrant-serving organizations have a variety of programs. Some give workshops on job search skills, where participants get an overview of the job market where they live. Participants learn, among other things, how to write a good résumé and how to behave in an interview. In some areas, there are job-finding clubs, mentoring programs, programs to help you get volunteer work experience, and wage subsidy programs.
Your personal “network”:
One of the best ways to learn about jobs is to talk to people. They can be people you know well or people you have just met. Even if they cannot lead you directly to a job, they can provide you with information, ideas, and names of other people who might be able to help and encourage you.
Many Web sites have information on job opportunities. You can search for a job on-line in any part of Canada. Some sites also give practical advice on how to plan your job search. Others allow you to apply for a job directly on the Internet, or to post your résumé (in English or French). When you do this, your résumé goes into a database that can be searched by employers. Try visiting the following Web sites, run by the federal government:
This is the national Web site of Human Resources Development Canada, a federal department. It is also the gateway to many of the sites mentioned below.
This is an on-line database of jobs and work or business opportunities across Canada. It matches work to people and people to work. You can click on the province where you plan to settle and submit a list of your skills to the database to find work opportunities that match your profile.
This site will take you through all the steps needed to choose a career and to carry out an effective work search.
This is a national site for career and labour market information. It will link you to job information for each province and territory. It also includes information on self-employment, education, and training.
This is the “Job Bank” Web site. It contains an on-line database of thousands of job vacancies across Canada.
This site will link you to detailed labour market information for every city in Canada.
This is a large network of job and career information Web sites. It can link you to full-time and part-time job opportunities.
This site is a gateway to job opportunities in the information technology and communications sector. It has links to company directories and associations that will help you find potential employers.
This site posts federal government jobs available across the country and accepts on-line applications.
This site is run by Citizenship and Immigration Canada. It includes links to many different types of jobs and other useful information for newcomers.
Federal and provincial laws protect workers and employers by setting minimum wage levels, health and safety standards, and hours of work. They provide for maternity leave, annual paid vacation and protection of children who are working. There are also human rights laws that protect employees from unfair treatment by employers based on sex, age, race, religion or disability.
There are laws to protect workers from discrimination. For example, an employer must hire employees on the basis of their qualifications. Employers cannot refuse to hire you because they don’t like your skin colour or your religion. This is discrimination. It is also discrimination if you are refused a job because of your age, sex, marital status, disability or sexual orientation.
Deductions and Taxable Benefits
Whether you are a Canadian citizen or a permanent resident, when you are hired, your employer will deduct money from your pay cheque to pay for the following:
All Canadian residents who are old enough to work must file an income tax return each year, whether they earned any money or not. That is the law. If you are working for an employer, a percentage of your pay cheque will be deducted and sent to the federal government to cover the income tax that you owe. If too much is deducted, you will get a refund. If you paid too little, you will have to pay more. This money helps pay the cost of government services.
Canada Pension Plan
A small part of your pay cheque goes into this plan. When you retire, you will receive a monthly pension from the federal government. The amount will vary according to how many years you worked in Canada before retiring and what your salary was. Residents of Quebec pay into the Quebec Pension Plan, which works the same way as the federal plan. These plans also include survivor’s pensions for the spouses of deceased pensioners, disability pensions, and death benefits.
When you are working, a small percentage of your pay cheque will be deducted each month to go into the Employment Insurance Account. Your employer contributes to the account as well. Employment Insurance gives money to eligible, unemployed Canadian residents for a short time, while they look for a new job or take some training to learn new skills.
Your employer may provide some benefits (for example, life insurance, special medical care, a dental plan or a private pension plan) that are taxable.
If you are in a union, and the union has an agreement with your employer, some money will be deducted to pay the union dues.